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威森——油脂精炼工艺的开拓者
 威森精炼损失 wesson refining loss :毛油中所含全部杂质占毛袖的质量分数,这是一个油脂加工技术人员都知道一个名词述语。Wesson是美国的一位杰出的油脂化学家,油脂精炼工艺的开拓者,美国油脂化学家协会创始人之一。1899年,威森发明了一种脱除棉籽油气味的方法,生产出了第一代棉籽油为原料的起稣油。作为棉花工业的副产品,棉籽油价格低廉,由于威森的发明,棉油成为20世纪初美国最受欢迎的食用油。

All the oil processing technicians know a noun out there, wesson refining loss: the mass fraction of all impurities contained in the crude oil in the wool sleeve. Wesson is an outstanding oleochemist in the United States, a pioneer in oil refining technology, and one of the founders of the American Oleochemist Association. In 1899, Wesson invented a method to remove the smell of cottonseed oil and produced the first generation of cottonseed oil as raw material. As a by-product of the cotton industry, cottonseed oil is cheap, and Wisson’s invention made cotton oil the most popular edible oil in the United States in the early 20th century.

WessonCHUSHENGYU1861NIAN1YUE14RI,TAZAINIUYUEBULUKELINDEGONGLIXUEXIAOJIESHOULEZAOQIJIAOYU,BIYEYUMASHENGLIGONGXUEYUAN(MIT),HUODELIXUEXUESHIXUEWEI,BINGZAINEILIDANRENHUAXUEJIAOSHOUDEZHULI。

Wesson was born on January 14, 1861. He received his early education in a public school in Brooklyn, New York. He graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) with a bachelor of science degree, where he served as an assistant to a professor of chemistry.

CIHOUBUJIU,WessonKAISHIDUIYOUZHIGANXINGQU,DANGSHITADANRENLEYILINUOSIZHOUZHIJIAGEN.K. FairbanksGONGSIDESHOUXIHUAXUEJIA。1890NIAN,W.J. WilcoxSHOUGOULEN.K. FairbanksGONGSI,WessonBEIDIAODAOXINZEXIZHOUDEGutenberg,DANRENSHOUXIHUAXUEJIA。FairbanksGONGSISHIMEIGUOWilcoxYOUZHIGONGSIDEYIGEFENFENSI,CONG1890NIANDAO1895NIANGUYONGLEWesson。DAO1893NIAN,WessonWEIGONGSIYIJINGKAIFALELIANGZHONGQISUYOUCHANPIN,YIGELUNBUHEBOLIWAER(Columbus HE Bolivar)DEMINGZIMINGMING。

Soon thereafter, Wesson became interested in fats and soaps when he was the chief chemist of N.K. Fairbanks in Chicago, Illinois, a manufacturer of animal-based oils. Generally speaking, these products include 8 parts oleostearin, 38 parts cottonseed oil and 60 parts lard. They were so successful in the market that Fairbanks gave up making pure lard. In 1890, W.J. Wilcox acquired N.K. Fairbanks, and Wesson was transferred to Gutenberg, New Jersey, as the chief chemist. Fairbanks is a branch of the Wilcox Grease Company in the United States, which hired Wesson from 1890 to 1895. However, it seems that some products were sold under the name Fairbanks until 1919. By 1893, Wesson had developed two oil products for the company, named after Columbus and Bolivar.

HOULAITAJIANLILEZIJIDESHIYANSHI,1900NIANKAISHISHENGCHANKESHIYONGMIANZIYOUDESHIHOU,WessonYIWessonJIAGONGGONGSIMINGYIJINGYING,TAYECHENGWEINANFANGMIANZIYOUGONGSIJISHUBUMENDEJINGLI。DAOLE1900NIANDONGTIAN,KAISHISHENGCHAN“Wesson YOU”。ZHEIYIGUOCHENGDEYIGEGUANJIANBUFENSHICHUCHOUJISHU。1845NIANSHOUCIBAODAOLEYOUZHIDETUOCHOU,DANGSHIYONGGAOYAZHENGQICHULIJIAREDAO110DUDEZONGLVYOU。DAO1891NIAN,Ekstein,FairbanksGONGSIYIGEYUANGONG,CHENGGONGTUOCHOUMIANZIYOU,ZAI340°FTONGRUGAOYAZHENGQI,ZAIFENGBIDEYOUGUANDINGBUPAICHUZHENGQIHEQIWEI。

Later, Wesson opened a bicycle factory and established its own laboratory. When edible cottonseed oil was produced in 1900, Wesson started a new business. Operating under the name of Wesson Processing Company, Wesson also became the manager of the technical department of Southern Cottonseed Oil Company. In the winter of 1900, the production of "Wesson Oil" began at the Savannah plant in Georgia. A key part of this process is the development of appropriate deodorization technology. Although the method of treating cottonseed oil with Fuller's clay eliminates the color problem, there are still difficulties in removing odor/taste, which severely restricts the use of cottonseed oil. Deodorization of fats and oils was first reported in 1845, when palm oil heated to 110 degrees was treated with high-pressure steam. By 1891, Ekstein, an employee of Fairbanks, had successfully deodorized cottonseed oil, passed high-pressure steam at 340°F, and discharged steam and odors on the top of a closed oil tank.

ZAIEksteinLIKAIFairbanksZHIHOU,James BoyceZUOLEGENGDUODEGAIJIN。WessonTONGGUOZAIZHENKONGZHONGJINXINGCAOZUO,ZUIZHONGGAISHANLECHUCHOUDEXIAOGUO。BIMIANGUOSHUDEFENGWEI,BINGCHANSHENGLEYOULIANGDEFENGWEIHEYANGHUAWENDINGXING。

After Ekstein left Fairbanks, James Boyce made more improvements. However, Wesson eventually improved its deodorization by operating in a vacuum. Overripe flavor is avoided and excellent flavor and oxidation stability are obtained.

WessonSIHUSHIDIYIGEYOUZHIHUAXUEJIA(1887)ZUZHIYIGEZHILIANGKONGZHISHIYANSHIDUIMIANZICHANPINJINXINGXITONGJIANCHA,TASHIDIYIGEWEIMIANZICHANGJINGYINGZHEJIANLIWULISHENJIFANGFADEREN。WessonSHIYIWEIDUOCHANDEZUOJIA,TAZHUANXIELEDALIANGDEWENZHANG,BAOKUOGONGYEHEGONGCHENGHUAXUE,MEIGUOHUAXUEGONGCHENGSHIXUEHUIDEXUEBAO,YIJIHUAXUEGONGYEXIEHUIDEQIKAN,YIJIGEZHONGYOUZHIGONGYEDEXINGYEZAZHI。TADUIGAIXINGYEDEXUDUOGONGXIANBAOKUOYIZHONGQUEDINGZHONGXINGYOUDELVDEFANGFA,JIWessonJINGLIANSUNSHICESHI;CEDINGYOUSEZEDEFANGFA;YIJIJIESHAOCHUCHOU、JIAQING、TUOSEHERONGJIJINCHUSHIYONGYOUDECHUBANWU。WessonDANREN《YOUZHIHEFEIZAO》(Oil and Soap)ZAZHIDEFUZHUBIAN。TASHIMEIGUOHUAXUEGONGCHENGSHIXUEHUIDEHUIYUAN,ZAI1919- 1920NIANDANRENZHEIGEXIEHUIDEZHUXI。

Wesson appears to have been the first grease chemist (1887) to organize a quality control laboratory for systematic inspection of cottonseed products, and he was the first to establish a physical audit method for cottonseed plant operators. Wesson is a prolific author of numerous articles including industrial and engineering chemistry, the journal of the American Society of Chemical Engineers, and the journals of the Chemical Industry Association, as well as trade journals of the various oil and grease industries. Many of his contributions to the industry include a method for determining neutral oil yield, known as the Wesson refining loss test; Method for determining oil colour and lustre; And publications on deodorization, hydrogenation, decolorization, and solvent leaching of edible oils. Wesson is associate editor of Oil and Soap magazine. He was a member of the American Society of Chemical Engineers and served as its president from 1919 to 1920.

WessonSHIZHIWUYOUXINGYEDEYOULIHANWEIZHE,YOUYUDANGSHITONGGUODELIFA,YUHUANGYOU/RUZHIPINXINGYEXIANGBIZHIWUYOUCHUYULIESHI。1886NIANTONGGUODEYIXIANGLIANBANGFALVYAOQIUSUOYOUDEZHUYOUHEQITAZHIFANGHUNHEWUBIAOJIWEI“HUAHEWU”,ERBUSHI“JINGZHIZHUYOU”,YIFANGZHICHANJIA。1931NIAN,ZAIYIGEZHONGYIYUANGUANYURENZAOHUANGYOUDELIFAHUIYISHANG,WessonHUIYISHUO,ZAI1886NIANFAANXIA,TAFENXIDEYIZHONGRENZAOHUANGYOUDEYANGBEN,SHIYIZHONGBUSHIHERENLEISHIYONGDEBIANZHIHUANGYOU。WessonHAIZHICHU,ZAITONGGUOLERENZAOHUANGYOUFAZHIHOU,FAXIANCHAOCHUTUZAIDEZHUSUODEDAODELIANGDEZHUYOUBEIYUNCHUZHIJIAGE。DIAOCHAXIANSHI,MIANZIYOUHEYINGZHISUANBEITIANJIADAOCHUNZHUYOUZHONG,BINGZUOWEIJINGLIANZHUYOUCHUSHOU。HUANGYOUXINGYEDUONIANLAIYIZHISHOUDAOFALVDEBAOHU,JINZHIZAIRENZAOHUANGYOUZHONGSHIYONGSESU。WessonXIANGZHONGYIYUANWEIYUANHUIZHICHU,HUANGYOUDEYANSESHOUYINSHIHEJIJIEDEYINGXIANG。ZAIDONGTIAN,NAINIUYONGGUWU、GANCAOHEDAOCAOWEIYANGCHANSHENGBAISEDEHUANGYOU,ERZAICHUXIA,NEIXIEKAOLVSEMUCHANGWEIYANGDENAINIUHUISHENGCHANCHUJINHUANGSEDEHUANGYOU。TARENWEI,WEILERANGXIAOFEIZHEBUBEIQIPIAN,SUOYOUHANYOURENGONGSESUDESHIPINDOUYINGGAIBEITONGDENGDIZHENGSHUI。

Wesson was a strong defender of the vegetable oil industry, which was at a disadvantage to the butter/dairy industry because of legislation passed at the time. A federal law passed in 1886 required all lard and other fat mixtures to be labeled "compounds" rather than "refined lard" to prevent adulteration. In 1931, during a House of Representatives legislative session on margarine, Wesson recalled that a sample of margarine he analyzed under the 1886 Act was a bad butter unfit for human consumption. The average person thinks these types of products are typical margarine, organic products. Made from oleic acid, neutral lard and refined cottonseed oil, it's sweet, and food experts agree that it's a healthy food and a valuable diet, especially for those who can't afford butter. Wesson also noted that after the margarine method was passed, it was found that more lard than the slaughtered pigs got was shipped out of Chicago. The investigation showed that cottonseed oil and stearic acid were added to pure lard and sold as refined lard. The butter industry has been protected by law against the use of pigments in margarine for years. Wesson pointed out to the House committee that butter color is influenced by diet and season. In winter, cows fed grain, hay, and straw produce white butter, while in early summer, those raised on green pastures produce golden butter. He argues that all foods containing artificial colors should be taxed equally in order to keep consumers from being cheated.

参与美国油脂化学家协会(AOCS)的组建 

ZAIDAWEI·WEISENZIJIDEHUAYUZHONG,DUIAOCSDECHENGLIQINGKUANGJINXINGLEMIAOSHU:

“ZAIZAOQIDEMIANZIYEWU,DANGMIANZIYAZHACHANGJUXINGLEYINIANYIDUHUIYIDEGUANLI,ZAIZHEIXIEHUIYIZHONGKEYIFAXIANXUDUOHUAXUEJIADEGANXINGQUDEGONGZUOSHIYANGEZHUYIGUIZEWEIYUANHUIDESHENYI,ZHEISHIYIGEFEICHANGBAGUADETUANTI,SHANGJIELINGDAORENZUCHENGDEBENYINGSHIBANBUMIANZIJIAGONGDECHANPINDEGUIZE。CANJIAZHEIXIEHUIYIDEHUAXUEJIADEZHUYAOZHIZESHIXIANGTAMENDEGUZHUTIGONGGEZHONGCESHIDUIJIAOYIDEYINGXIANG。YOUYICIWUCANSHI,JIJIALINGXIANDEGONGSIDEHUAXUEJIAZIYOUDITAOLUNLEMOUXIEFANGFA,BINGDEZHITAMENDOUZAISHIYONGWANQUANXIANGTONGDECHENGXU,BINGQIELEJIELEXIANGTONGDESHISHI。1909NIAN5YUE18RIZHI20RI,ZAIMENGFEISIJUXINGDEGUOJIMIANZIYAZHAZHEXIEHUIHUIYISHANG,YIXIAOQUNDAIBIAOBUTONGGONGCHANGHESHANGYESHIYANSHIDEHUAXUEJIAJUXINGLEFEIZHENGSHIHUIYI。DAJIAYIZHITONGYI,MIANHUAYOUHUAXUEJIADEZUZHIJIANGCUJINXIANGHUGANQING,YUNXUZAITONGYIFENXIFANGFADEFAZHANFANGMIANJINXINGGENGMIQIEDEHEZUO,BINGWEIMIANZIYOUGONGYEDELIYITIGONGYIZHONGYANJIUGONGZUODESHOUDUAN。LINSHIZUZHIDEJIEGUOSHIRENMINGLEYIGEWEIYUANHUILAIQICAOFAGUIHEZHANGCHENG。ZAI1910NIANDEXIAOSHICHENGHUIYISHANG,XIEHUIYI“MIANZICHANPINFENXISHI”DEMINGYIZUZHIQILAI。

Participated in the formation of the American Association of Oleochemists (AOCS)

In David Wesson’s own words, he described the establishment of AOCS:

"In the early cottonseed business, when the cottonseed crushing plant held annual meetings, it was found that many chemists were interested in strictly paying attention to the deliberations of the Rules Committee. This is a very gossip group. The business leaders are supposed to promulgate the rules for cottonseed processing products. The main responsibility of the chemists participating in these meetings is to provide their employers with various tests on the impact of transactions. There is no doubt that the chemists participating in these meetings Be vigilant to new and improved methods, and use their advantages for the benefit of their company. These are relatively crude test methods, and most chemists’ efforts are in the evaluation of oil production and refining methods. This It was before the day of real cooperation. I saw several chemists chatting together. Everyone wanted to say as little as possible, what to learn from their peers. This is a common sight. Their working methods have ridiculous secrets. When it is believed that all people have access to the same literature and trade practices. The author remembers that during lunch, chemists from several leading companies freely discussed certain methods and learned that they were all using exactly the same Procedures, and learned the same facts. From May 18 to 20, 1909, at the International Cottonseed Squeezers Association meeting in Memphis, a small group of chemists representing different factories and commercial laboratories held an informal meeting. It was agreed that the organization of cotton oil chemists would promote mutual affection, allow closer cooperation in the development of unified analytical methods, and provide a means of research work for the benefit of the cottonseed oil industry. The result of the provisional organization is appointment A committee was formed to draft regulations and articles of association. At the Little Rock meeting in 1910, the association was organized under the name of "Cottonseed Product Analyst". The name was chosen because few of us have received real chemistry education , And only received the training of laboratory assistants, mainly to do routine tests.

美国油脂化学家协会前12任主席,摄于1921年。

前排左二:David Wesson

The 12 former presidents of the American Association of Oleochemists, taken in 1921.

Front row second from left: David Wesson

 

WessonYU1934NIAN5YUE22RIQUSHI,TADEFUGAOCHUXIANZAI6YUEDE《YOUZHIYUFEIZAO》ZAZHISHANG。FUGAOSHUO:“ZUOWEIYIGENANREN,WessonBOSHIFEICHANGMINZHU,ERQIEYOUHENQIANGDEYOUMOGAN。”TAZONGSHILEYUBANGZHUXINGYEZHONGDENIANQINGRENJIEJUEGEZHONGWENTI。WEISENBOSHISHOUDAOLESUOYOURENSHITADERENDEAIDAI,TADEPENGYOU、WOMENDESHEHUIHEZHENGGEXINGYEDOUZAOSHOULEJUDADESUNSHI。

Wesson is an avid sailor, he owns a sailboat, and he sails in Banat Bay. He died on May 22, 1934. The industry mourned his death, and his obituary appeared in the June issue of Grease and Soap. The obituary said: "As a man, Dr. Wesson is very democratic and has a strong sense of humor." He is always happy to help young people in the industry solve various problems. Dr. Wesson is loved by everyone who knows him. His friends, our society and the industry have suffered huge losses.

 

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